ǡΨһǡۼֵѧ壭۳ɲ

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ǡΨһǡۼֵѧ

 

۳ɲ

 

 

AbstractThis thesis focus on the theoretical value of Thomas Aquinass De Unitate Intellectus and its theological and philosophical significance. The theoretical value mainly embodies in his arguments and construction to the theory of the individuality, immateriality and immortality of human soul. Facing the challenge of Averroess position, he synthesizes Aristotelianism and Platonism and takes intellect or intellectual soul as a substantial form, so that Averroist position that there is only one human intellect has been refuted firmly. Thus, Aquinas fulfills the reform of the traditional Christian theology with the help of Aristotles philosophy and solves the crisis that Christianity was facing; in doing this Christian theology was advanced. Therefore, De Unitate Intellectus shows theological and philosophical significance in the history of development of western theology and philosophy.

 

 

Ψһǡ˹ΪĴѧ֮һȻƪȻ˰Ϊѧ縺κʹУҲչӭʱս¾˼µۼֵڳʿµѧ˼벢Ը£ǵĸԡԸ贴½ͣȷ˸겻ĿԺͱȻԣӶڶ԰άߵġΨһǡеͬʱʹͳڽѧ˼µ

һǵĸ

֪ѧͣʼϣѧҰǿȻǺĹԣȶ֮Ĺϵȷ綨ѧʿ£ڡ꡷н˵Խ˼жϵĶ綨ΪǣǣdzΪ˵һٽǰǿԼŵijԽ֮ϵǡȻֻǵľԣ̸۸ƺЩǣǿǸݰǶʿµѧ˵⣬Ȼ˵Ҫô˵ҲͿԱǡ˵˵꣬Ҳǻ飬ijεĺͶڵ[1]ңڰǿȻʿΪʽǽԻҪԭôǽԭ򣬲ǣDZ꣬ʽ[2]ǵĸܻΪĸ⣬Ϊʽĸ⣬Ȼʽ

ڰ֮ǰ˵ڹϣѧУʽͨиԣDZʾձԡͼáeidosָòġġʵġԭ͡ࡱձҪ֮һεԣǶڡeidosвͬ⣬Ӷвͬ뷨¿ΪǡΪڡ⡢ͣСʽһ㺬ûʵģʽձҲһdzȻˡ[3]ʿȻáʽϡԼDZʵѧ˵͸Ĺɣ˽Ϊһʵ壬ָʵĸԡǣȴδ˶϶Ϊʵıʵʽĸԡ[4]ʿ˵ʽձģǸ˵ʽʾ࣬[5]磬ӶԣΪȻǡͬһ塱ǣǵġʽƷ֣ȴͬüǺո׵˵ʵձԣһʽЩ֮УѾдۺʵ壬ǼǻոףϸԳΪһʽͬǵʽDzֵġ[6]

ǿʽձԵĹϣѧ෴ǿʽĸԡڿŵıʵĹУƱʡֻĶձġ[7]ʾʽĸԵġƪ۴뱾ʡУȽʵۻζѧĸ߼֣ȷؽ綨ΪʵۻζѧĸӶѱʸ޶ʵۻζѧάȣ޶ڸﱾżԵʵķΧ֮ڣų˴ʿν߼ĽǶȿ챾ʵĿԡȻͨԴڲͬʵеıʵĿ죬屾ʵ˵ʽĸԡʵࣺʵʵ塣УΪʵ;ʵıʾʽΪʵʵıʽϸ϶ɡ˵ʵıʲʽǰʽ棬ʵı򵥵ʽ[8]ʵ˵䱾֮ģΪָϵԵʡʿȻۡ͡DZ-ʵ˵ƺṩһֽ˵Ȿʵĸɹ̵۷ʽǼȻʿָ޲ձͳһϣʽ˵Ҳֻһձ鱾ʣôձϺձʽĽϺܹתɾⱾʵĸأΪˣǽָ֡ϡָ͡ϡԼʽ͡廯ʽһ⡣˵

 

Ӧףκηʽ϶ܹɸ廯ԭָֻϲСνֱָָΪ޶άȵϡϲDZ֮Ϊ˵ĶУDZո׵ĶУոжĻˡȻ˵ĶеһַָϡΪ˵Ķõģͷ鼡⣬ֻǾԵĹǺ⣬־ԵĹǺ˵ķָϡ[9]

 

ȻڰǶԣָһ־пռάȵʵĶ䱾Ϊһĸ廯Ķκι涨ԵԵĶһ־ձijָϣָȻʵĸҲָϾֻһֳָʵĸⱾʣ˵ʵˡ[10]

    ȻΪıʽϹɵģʵҲͲϣʽΪˣ뷺ָϺָӦˡʽ͡廯ʽ˵ʵ˵ʽʵΪԭ򡱵Ĺʽڸøġʵʡ򡰱ԡ룬һֹʽϽϵԵʶ廯֡廯˵ʽת˸øⱾʡȻΪʵʽиԣҾʵ壨ʹʽͬиԣھʵУʽĸ廯϶ǡ廯ġ[11]Ҳ˵ھʵУΪձġʽ롰廯ʽһ¡[12]

ڰ˵Ȼ˵ΪʽΪľʵ壬ǸԵġΪǻո׵ʽԣȻո׵廯Ϊһ־ʵԣȻһձԣڲͬȼʹ˵ǸԵġˣÿ˶ӵԼĸԵǣǰ󣬶άƵֻǹһձǡ

 

ǵķ

ǿ״ǡŬ˹һѧʱǷǷʵȻڡǿȻǿƺӦһִ⾫ԵĶڱԵġԵĶȫͬǣⲢζŰǿġǡѾһʾ⾫ĸоԵķԡʵϣҲȷñǡҶɽԣڰǿƪ12УnousΪԵϰһnousǡᡢĶһnousдС۴СģǶһġ[13]ΪˣΪŬ˹һϡĶܵ͸˵ʵĶʸϡǺġ[14]B. A. G. FullerͬصĹ۵㣬ԽŬ˹ɾԣΪŬ˹ͬصĻһȫʵġ[15]ȻΪǿDZǷʵġķ룬ֻڵʱʵķֻʶδɣŬ˹һԭѧ룬ûеĵƵĹ涨ıҲǡҪijЩԵijƺǸʵɫʡ[16]Ҳ˵ǿûǡ˵ǡȻȻǿġǡǷһԵĶѧǵۣôȻǵķԡڹϣѾΪһ⡣ʵϣһЩоΪ˵nousΪʵ;صɷѿĵʣ翵£Cornfordġsoul-substance-ʵ壩Bailyġmind-stuff-ϣȡ[17]ո׺ʿҲǿûнǵĴ⾫ѧϹ᳹ףո˶ʧ˵¿λѧȫǣҲɰԭ򣬶̫ˮϡŹֵĶ[18]

˵ǿǵķԵĺǣѧչʷϾʵҴڹ֮жԾ֣ôʿ¶ǷԵĺҲ˵ζѧѧ˵֮¡ʿ˵ȱȻǷʵģʶ۶ԣΪǷʵģDzſʶһǾijʣʽ谭ȥʣ۾ͫԱԵؾijɫ࣬ͻӰɫһоһҪ٣ôǾͻܵӰ쵼ܵ˵ĿԣоܵܳܵĿɸоӰһȻʿµζѧԭ򣬼ȻһȻﶼΪʵʽΪDZܵϽ϶ɣôʱ򣬾ζʽϹϵĽ壬Ϊ֮ΪʽҲͶڣ֮ȻʽDzģԣϵһ𡣼Ȼˣʿ½˵ΪΪʽһʱΣʵĻǷʵһ͹ֳΪлġһʵˣҲֻһʽ򡱣ʹDZ״̬ϻʵԵһ򣬵Ⲣζʽ˾Dzģʿ²ûôȷ˵

ӹɣʿҲͼһ⡣ڡ꡷35¿ʼΪ˽DZ״̬Ǻܹʵʶ⣬áʽ-ѧ˵Ǵ߼ΪǺͱǣΪǿģ430a25ϣ壩ࡣȻˣƶϱǾԣǷʵģȻͬһôܼʵǷʵأʿ¶Դɲ꣬˵һȥ

ϣԼͣѧ߶ͨǺͱΪԶʵʿµ⣬Ҳ˵˵ڵķʵ壬ʵģΪȫУһУ޵ǵɽȻֱӽΪǣȻʽôΪҲͱȻܵӰ죬ԴϵDZܣοΪʿ˵Ȼʽ뿪Ͼûκλ[19]ȻɽһܵάɺͷԡάΪȻʿ˵DzκαԣڽĻ֮ǰDZ״ֻ̬DZڵһһհ׵дְ壬ôǾͲӦһʽͻӰʽĽܣֻһʵ壬ʵȼĩˡҲ˵άǵķԣǵԡΪǻǷʵʵ壬ܱ廯ֻΪСڰǿĽǻģΥʿ¹Ϊ֮ʽһĽ̵

ȷǷʵģǺΪͬһǵ棬ǡͨȷ˵ʵʽʿ⡣걾ԣǷʵ壬ܹΪʵʽʹ˻ñԴڵʱٶԶԣӶȻǷʵġģٶֹͣ˵ࡣһЩʽϵĴںͻûĴںͻǶĸ˵ȡʵʽ֮ȻˣǻΪʽǵķ֮ijͻ

 

Dz

겻ͼԣһϵѧ˵ϵѧ˵˵ֻصģ˵ⲻĽѡ[20]ӹɵǣڰͼ֮ǰǰ¶˹ɱϴ˹ѧɶ겻ʶֱ۵ģδѧ֤εָͼͨڡ˵ۡṹʻԴԼ֮ۡϵ֤겻֤[21]ǣⲢζŰͼȷ֤ˡ겻ࡱʵϣš꾻˵͡ת˵޷͡ĸԡһ˹Christopher Roweָڰͼ˵궼ȫõôȻ޷ֱ˴ˣΪ߶ΪԵĺǵĴߣ۶ֽ֤ͣͬ궼вѡ[22]ңһ壬ȫԱȻɥʧԹȥȻҲͺ޼ˣ˼ʹµͬϣҲһµ꣬û˻ոµĴϳңʹһĻҲϳԼ[23]Ȼĸԡڰͼ˵һȷ⣬ô겻ࡱ͸һδ⡣

ʿ¸䡰ʽϡDZܺʵѧ˵Ȼѧάȳ˵ȫԣΪ϶ɣ˲ٽǡʹꡱǣȻʿΪϺʽǹȻĹͬԭôϵʽҪôһҪôתƵϡȻʿǼֻ˵ת˵šκ嶼ص״ʽÿһżձʹԼĹһÿһҲԼе塱[24]ϴ˹ѧĹΪκ궼һֱ췽ҹ̷˵ͺ˵ԭʹþӡӡͷȹߵľԭӦֵijľƷһͬڰͼո˵Ԣںӵ֮л۷ܹ˵ҲʮֻƵġ[25]ΪӵDzʺȥ֯Ƿӵģ˵ҲܹȥɻƷۡߣڷǰ˶ʱ˵ܹ˶ôп뿪һٽһ壬ͻóĶﻹٴθĽۡ[26]ȻˣDzò˵ڴȻѧάȿ˵ʿ˵ΪһʵȻһĶʽ겻Dzģ˵Ϊ˵ǿġǣӹɵǣ˵˵ڰǿǵķ֮ʵ޶ʿֳֳìܵһ棬ΪǿģDzDzģΪֻ֮ģϵӰ졣ɴ˶ìֱɺ֮

¹˹ѧȻڽ̡ꡱŸ겻࣬Dzûи۽ͨʵʶ֤ܹڵ֮IJԣ岻ϵĽϵķʽ˵ԶڵʵԳΪһʵ壬ͬ޷ĸԡ⡣13͵ŷޣʿµ˼Ĵĸԡ͡IJࡱͳһΪѧDzòԵ⡣

ڡΨһǡУʿ¡ʽϡԭãͨ䡰ϸ廯ѧ˵֤˵ĸԣǵġԡһʸ贴ڹͣڲⰢάԼͼ-¹˹ߵŵͬʱҲԸ겻֤Ҳǿ˵ǽ塰ǵĸԡ͡ǵķԡѧ˵֤˸겻ࡣ

 

ġΨһǡѧ

ʿµѧܹڽģôͱȻͼԷѧķʽ⡣ʾôǵõͻأ˵ڽѧԴ֮⣬ѧԴȻ֮⣬ѧȷȱݣҲȣЩԤʾΪȻǶȵ[27]ӦͨԮѧѧ⡣ȷšҪƻȻҪʹ[28]ȻศɵĹϵͬʱҪѧѧĸԭ򡣰Ƕѧʹܹʿµѧڹ촫ͳڽѧ˼룬Ӷֱ13Żڽ˼ݹ˹˼Ȼб𡣾ˣѧö˵ֻܱ޶֤͡ķΧ֮ڣҲѧ֤ǰסѧѧΥۣʾ򲻱Ҫ[29]Ҳǿ˵˼ŰˡΨһǡдγɡΨһǡһԶѧѧ塣

ѧԣȣǻȫͬǵֻ֤֤ʹв֮Իڽѧ˼뷢չĹȴDzԶġάűϿƺֻһѧ⣬ǶʿһڹͶѣȻһάĽۣȫ๲һǣΪһȷ⣬ڻͽ˵ͿԽһƶϣȻҹ꣬ҵ꣬ҵ꣬ơ͡жʲôֱƶ϶ڻͽ˵ഡˣĩС˾ꡱ겻ࡱʧȥ塣Űά߶ԡΨһۡĴȾԻͽɵǿҳ㯣ά֤겻ࡱͳΪʱѧԵ⡣

һЩصѧذ¹˹Ľ̵Ϊֻʥ֪ʶĸԴ뿪ʥǾٷΣա[30]ˣڰάߵġа˵Դʿµѧ˼롱ʱĽ̻ȡ˾̬ܳȡȻǼʿµѧǶѧ油䣬ȷſѧ֤һЩѧΨһǡӦ˵һ˼룬ֳǻҲʹܵڽ̵һЩѧҵ֧֡Ȼѧ֤ѧķʽ1277̻ʿĴȺܵDZϾ˳ӦʱչһĻãԵñȰ¹˹ͻ͢տ϶˹ͳԣ1323718ղⰢΪʥͽΪǰǣ̻ᡱ[31]

Σ֤˼·ͽԣӹɵǣǽ䡰ָϡѧ˵廯ԭԼʵʽʱ˵ʱŻڽѧǵ⣺һĸԣһǸ겻࣬Ӷ֤ˡ겻ࡱꡱĩСȻڽ̽ĺԣά˻ڽȨһ̶ϲ˰άߵۣ˻ͽ顣밢ͬʱѧҲĶͬͼʿµġۡ˵ĸԣΪ˵걾ǾʽϵĹɵľʵ壬ˣ겻ΪԵ꣬ʵʱ֤IJࡣȻĶ¹˹һ⣺ȻһƵʵ壬ܹ?ԶڵʵνϳΪһµʵ壿ǷֶԪ˼루ͬϽ;ʵ壩Ȼʿµѧһȫ˲ܰʵ壬ôáԪۡһ˵γٴڲ֮Dzûжʿµ˼ӲףǶʿ˼кڹͣɶ԰άߵķ

˵֤겻ѵѧ֮һ[32]ڡΨһǡǻʵ˶ѧ֤Ӷڻڽѧ˼뷢չʷҪһʡ

ѧԣ䡰塱񡣰׷ʿ£˵ıʽϽ϶ɡȻΪ֮ʽһôǵĻƺͲǸ⡣Ȼάȫ๲һǣһ˵ձͨÿ˵ϾͿԽǵĻˣ¹˹IJϵĽϣΪƶ˽ϣʹƶߵĻڱƶߡ

Ǵ۵άȳ塰⡱һ޷ϵʵ԰άͰͼ-¹˹ġΪֻΪʽϣÿ˲ܹӵԼ˵֮һʵ壬ǵĻֻܹǣܹոˣǽǡ͡ˡΪһ̸Ϊ˵ıʾ꣬ôͬԽͺһȱһָоͻȱӦ֪ʶ˹ԣάDZԵĽʿµζѧ߼̺ıȻۣǻʶʿζѧľԶǵض໥ìܵĵط[33]ܹ֮ȡĴԭ򡣡ʶ˼롱һʵʹȷ֤ʵġٵǵĻȷǵ˵Ļһɵʵǵ֤һʵԭ򡪡ǻض˵ʵʽʹڱǷʵġ

ǡΨһǡѧ廹ʶϡڹϣ˵ĸԸȷѧϹ֪ʶۺ漰ʶĸ⡣ͣǴʵ۵άȣ䱾ѧ˵ȫˡ롰ˡĸɴ˱ȷȻڰάſ˵Ķʵ壬˹һǣʶĸǾ͹ԳڰάΪǴҹһǣDzſγɹͬʶձ֪ʶһÿ˵Ľϣÿ˵ʶͿԵֱͬ𣬴ӶΪԵʶǴ˵ȫԹָ˵ʵԺַʽԲܳΪ˵Σÿ˵ʶԣǵDzͬǽоõҲ죬ǾҪﱾԣǴĿ࣬ǹڴڵıԵ֪ʶֻǽʶıԵĹ߶ѡȻʶĶǴﱾǴ֮еıԣôھԵÿ˶ԽԼǻùͬһʶʶӶ֤˸ʶһԡ

⣬Ψһǡѧڰǵѧ˼롣ǿ˵ȫԣҲ˵ıʽϹɣʹͼ-¹˹߱־룬ǿ˵ĸԣ˰Ƕʿ˼ˣǿ˵˵ȫԺ͸˼ΪǷάͼ-¹˹Ҫۻij̶ֳϣ˼ʿڽ˼Ķ

 

                                        ߵλ人ѧ 

 

 



[1] Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I, Q.75, a.2 .

[2] Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I, Q.76, a.1.

[3] εǣ۰ǵıѧ˵ʱ塱ѧ̬20068ڣ34ҳ

[4] εǣǵıѧ˵ʿµijԽ塱ѧо20068ڣ61ҳ

[5] ʿ£ζѧ81033b24

[6] ͬϣ1033b20-1034a10

[7] ǣ۴뱾ʡChapter 24

[8] ǣ۴뱾ʡChapter 45

[9] ͬϣChapter 24

[10] εǣԶػ۰ָѧ˵ıʼѧ塱ڽо20064ڣ96ҳ

[11] Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I, Q.3, a.3.

[12] ġ۰ǵıѧ˵ʱ塱ѧ̬20068ڣ37ҳ

[13] Ҷɽǰոѧо磬1997239ҳ

[14] أϣѧ268-269ҳ

[15] Եࣺϣѧʷ11988913ҳ

[16] Եࣺϣѧʷ11988914ҳ

[17] ˼ϣѧʷ2277ҳתҶɽǰոѧо240ҳ

[18] ġѧԭѡϾ63ҳ

[19] Cf. Herbert A. Davidson, Alfarabi, Avicenna & Averroes on Intellect, pp.282~284.

[20] ͼ쳶ƪ70C

[21] Ķεǣѧѧ磬75-76ҳ

[22] ̩ࣺӿ˵ͼ뿡룬йѧ磬492ҳ

[23] ͬϣ494ҳ

[24] ʿ£꡷407b20-26

[25] ͼ쳶ƪ82 A-B

[26] ʿ£꡷406b5

[27] ǣλһ塷ע23תԶػѧ1500365ҳ

[28] Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, , Q.1, a.8, ad.2.

[29] Զػѧ1500368ҳ

[30] Anton Charles Pegis, St. Thomas and the Problem of the Soul in the Thirteenth Century, Toronto, St. Michaels College, 1934, p.27.

[31] ְ˹ǻѧϺϺ磬1990216ҳ

[32] Ralph McInerny, Aquinas against the AverroistOn There Being Only One Intellect , Indiana, Purde University Press, 1993, p.160.

[33] Fernand Van SteenberghenThomas Aquinas and Radical Aristotelianism, The Catholic University of America Press, 1980, pp.59-63.